Bioanalytical Chemistry 2021

Grade in Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. 2021

Bionalytical Chemistry arises as a result of the convergence of Analytical Chemistry and Biochemistry and addresses the design and application of novel specific and sensitive analytical techniques. The term Bioanalytical Chemistry involves not only the resolution of biological samples or bioanalytes, but also to the use of the biological reaction and the biomolecular reagent to obtain analytical information. This approach is influencing decisively in the development of new bioanalytical methodologies, with several advantages over traditional analytical methods. A main issue of classical Analytical Chemistry, the selectivity, can be solved by the integration of biological reagents, providing specificity.

Furthermore, the biorecognition may simplify the analytical procedure by avoiding complex treatments of the sample. On the other hand, the integration of  biological origin allows to improve the limits of detection.
Currently, the methods used in Bioanalytical Chemistry include, beside the classic analytical instrumental methods, such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, other methods derived from molecular biology, including PCR (polymerase chain reaction), enzymatic or immunological methods.

General information

Assessment

The competences of this subject will be evaluated by means of:

  • Middle term test (individual assessment), including the 1st part of the subject. 35% of the final mark. 23/04/2020 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. 
  • Final term test (individual assessment), including the 2nd part of the subject. 35% of the final mark. 15/06/2020 from 9 to 12 p.m. 
  • If a student fails in any of the two tests (mark below 5.0), there will be a final exam including  the whole subject (individual assessment). 70% in the final mark. 29/06/2020 from 16 to 19 p.m.
  • Cooperative and collaborative activities. 15% of the final marks. 
  • Bioanalytical Chemistry Laboratory. The laboratory practices will be evaluated by means of the laboratory reports (50%) and the accomplishment of a test in the second partial exam (50%). The average mark obtained from laboratory practices will be equivalent to 15% of the final grade for the course.

To pass the subject, a minimum mark of 5 points (over 10) is required as the average of cooperative and collaborative controls and activities. The laboratory practice assistance is also mandatory. 

To participate in the final exam the students must have been previously evaluated in a set of activities whose weight equals to a minimum of two thirds of the total grade of the subject.

For more details about the assessment, download the General Guidelines

Adapted assessment for e-learning (optional)

The competences of this subject will be evaluated by means of:

  • Deliverables of the first units, being 10 % of the final grade. The deliverables must be uploaded on the website.
  • Middle term test (individual assessment), including the 1st part of the subject. 25% of the final mark. 23/04/2020 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. 
  • Deliverables of the last units, being also 10% of the final grade. The deliverables must be uploaded on the website.
  • Final term test (individual assessment), including the 2nd part of the subject. 25% of the final mark. 15/06/2020 from 9 to 12 p.m. 
  • The participation in the online activities proposed in the forum, individual, cooperative and collaborative, and participation in self-evaluation activities, will be 15 % of the final grade.
  • Bioanalytical Chemistry Laboratory. The laboratory practices will be evaluated by means of the laboratory reports (50%) and the accomplishment of a test in the second partial exam (50%). The average mark obtained from laboratory practices will be equivalent to 15% of the final grade for the course.

No participation in any of these activities will be considered as a “Not presented”.

If a student fails in any of the two tests (mark below 5.0), there will be a final exam including  the whole subject (individual assessment). 50% in the final mark. 29/06/2020 from 16 to 19 p.m.

In order to participate in this assessment, the students must have previously been evaluated in a set of activities whose weight is equivalent to a minimum of two thirds of the total grade of the subject.

El Consell de Govern de la UAB, reunit el dia 15 de gener en sessió extraordinària, ha aprovat tres mesures excepcionals relatives a l’avaluació que es mantindran durant el curs 2020-2021 donada la situació d’emergència sanitària generada per la Covid-19.

  1. Per participar al procés d’avaluació i de recuperació de l’assignatura o mòdul no serà exigible haver obtingut una qualificació mínima en la mitjana de l’assignatura o mòdul, deixant en suspens l’article 112ter.3 de la Normativa Acadèmica, a tal efecte.
  2. La mera assistència a classe no incidirà en la qualificació final de l’assignatura o mòdul, excepte en el cas de les pràctiques d’assistència obligatòria.
  3. El nivell d’exigència en les activitats d’avaluació ha d’estar en concordança amb les adaptacions que, com a conseqüència de la Covid-19, s’hagin hagut d’implementar a la docència, tant teòrica com pràctica.

Problems and exercises

A password is  required to download the files

Topics

Lesson 1

Introduction to Bioanalytical Chemistry. Safety and risks in the biochemistry laboratory. The bioanalytical methodology. Obtaining samples. Qualitative (screening) assays vs. quantitative Assays.  Data fitting and statistical treatment. Validation of bioanalytical methods. Sensitivity and specificity. Matrix effect. Interferences.

Lesson 2

Structure of biomolecules and Biorecognition. Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. Antibodies. Enzymes. Nucleic Acids. Biorecognition: Enzyme/Substrate. Antigen/antibody. Hybridization. Other affinity interactions in nature. Strept(avidin), Protein A and G. Aptamers.  Biomimetic recognition. The importance of water in biorecognition. Biological buffers.

Lesson 3

Purification of antibodies Part 1 and Part 2.     The special case of magnetic bioseparation

Lesson 4

Instrumental techniques for the detection of biomolecules.Spectrophotometry and Fluorimetry. UV-VIS, turbidimetry, X-rays. Mass spectrometry for biomolecules. Genomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

Lesson 5

Enzymatic analysis. Enzymes in bioanalytical chemistry. Enzymatic kinetics. Examples of reactions catalyzed by enzymes. Enzymatic inhibitors. Quantification of enzymes and their substrates. Clinical Examples. Creatinin.     Glucose.    Uric Acid. Urea.Colesterol.   Aspartate aminotransferase (GOT  or  AST).     Alanine aminotransferase (ALT or GPT).     γ -glutamyl transferase (γ-GT).

Lesson 6

Immunoassay.Classification. Applications. Heterogeneous and homogeneous immunoassay. Labelling: radioisotopes, fluorescence, chemiluminescence. Enzyme labelling: ELISA. Data fittings. Statistical treatment.  Validation. Sensitivity and specificity. Matrix effect.

Lesson 7

DNA analysis. Hybridization. DNA amplification. PCR and Q-PCR. Detection strategies.  Isothermic techniques for amplification of DNA. Gene expression chips.

Lesson 8

Rapid and screening methods.    Immunocromatography and reactive strips. Agglutination techniques.     Chemical sensors and biosensors.    Laboratories on a chip.  Applications.

Lesson 9

Lesson 10

Immobilization of biomolecules. Strategies in solid phase in bioanalytical  chemistry. Types, characteristics and nature of solid supports. Strategies for the immobilization of biomolecules in solid supports. Evaluation of nonspecific adsorption.

Lesson 11

Labelling of biomolecules. Labelling and modifications with functional groups. Conjugation of biomolecules to different tags: enzymes, fluorophores, nanoparticles and QDs, biotin. Signal amplification techniques.

Multimedia

Selected videos and multimedia (password required)

Recommended movies and series

Making a Murderer (TV Series Netflix)

Betty Anne Waters (Movie Amazon Prime Video)

The Innocence Files (TV Serie Netflix)

Bibliography

– Bioanalytical Chemistry. Susan R. Mikkelsen & Eduardo Cortón. Wiley-interscience. 2004.
– Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 6 ª ed. Edited by Keith Wilson & John Walker. Cambridge University Press. 2006.
– ‘Bioquimica. Técnicas y Métodos’. Pilar Roca, Jordi Oliver y Ana Mª Rodríguez. Editorial Hélice. 2003.
– Principles and Practice of Bioanalysis. Edited by Richard F. Venn. Taylor & Francis, 2000

The basics

Biochemistry

– David L. Nelson, Michel M. Cox. ‘Lehninger Principios de Bioquímica’. 4ª ed. Ediciones Omega. 2006.
– L. Stryer, Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymocxko. Bioquímica. 5 ª ed. Editorial Reverté. 2003.
– Mary K. Campbell, Shawn O. Farrell. Bioquímica. 4 ª ed. Editorial Thomsom. 2004.

Analytical Chemistry

– Skoog, Holler i Niemen. “Principios de Análisis Instrumental” 5ª edició. Ed. Mc. Graw Hill. 2001.
– Skoog, West, Holler i Crouch “Fundamentos de Química Analítica” 8ª edició. Ed. Thomsom, 2005.
– Daniel C. Harris “Análisis químico cuantitativo”. 2ª ed (5ª en Ingles), Editorial Reverte 2001.

Bioanalysis. Other suggested bibliography

– Bryan L. Williams, Keith Wilson. Principios y Técnicas de Bioquímica experimental. Ediciones Omega, 1981.
– J.M. García Segura, J.G. Gavilanes, A. Martínez del Pozo, F. Montero, M. Oñaderra, F. Vivanco. Técnicas instrumentales de análisis en Bioquímica. Editorial Síntesis, 2002.
– D.J. Holme, H. Peck. Analytical Biochemistry. 3rd edition. Prentice Hall, 1998.
– Reiner Wetermeier and Tom Naven. Proteomics in Practice: A Laboratory Manual of Proteome Analysis, Wiley-VCH Verlag-GmbH,. Weinheim, 2002.
– Rodney F. Boyer, Modern Experimental Biochemistry (Third Edition) Benjamin/Cummings, San Francisco, 2000.
– Handbook of Experimental Immunology. Vol. 1. Weir DM, ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1986.
– Rodney F. Boyer, Biochemistry Laboratory. Modern Theory and Techniques. Publisher: Benjamin Cummings. 2006.
– Jeremy W Dale and Malcom von Schantz. From Genes to Genomes: Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2002
– Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry. Somenath Mitra, ed. Wiley-Interscience: Hoboken, NJ, 2003.